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Resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants when under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. The effects of resveratrol are currently a topic of numerous animal and human studies. Its effects on the lifespan of many model organisms remain controversial, with uncertain effects in fruit flies, nematode worms, and short-lived fish. In mouse and rat experiments, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, blood sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects of resveratrol have been reported. These results have yet to be replicated in humans. In one positive human trial, extremely high doses (3 5 g) of resveratrol, in a proprietary formulation designed to enhance its bioavailability, significantly lowered blood sugar. This 28-day Phase 1b study was conducted privately in India by pharmaceutical company Sirtris, and was announced at an investors conference in 2008. However, although it has been alluded to in review articles, the study itself has never been published in a peer-reviewed scientific publication. Despite the mainstream press alleging resveratrols anti-aging effects, there are no accepted data to form a scientific basis for the application of these claims to mammals (see life extension section below). At the present time, research on resveratrol is in its infancy and the long-term effects of supplementation in humans are not known. Resveratrol is found in the skin of red grapes and in other fruits. However, red wine contains very little of it, in the order of one milligram per glass. Resveratrol has also been produced by chemical synthesis and by biotechnological synthesis (metabolic engineered microorganisms) and is sold as a nutritional supplement derived primarily from Japanese knotweed.